There are two separate and distinct systems of land surveys in the United States. (1) The system of metes and bounds in which each parcel of land is individually described and bounded, and (2) the system of rectangular surveys under which the land is divided basically into equal-sized townships, sections, and fractions thereof.
The irregular system of metes and bounds is used entirely in ME, NH, VT, MA, RI, CN, NY, PA, NJ, MD, DE, VA, NC, SC, GA, TN, KY, TX, and parts of OH. Each parcel of land varies in size, is described independently, and is not tied in to any system of base lines.
The system of rectangular surveys was inaugurated in 1784 and the laws governing its establishment have, with various modifications, been applied to all of the United States with the exception of the states listed above. Under this system the lands are divided into townships six miles square, which are related to base lines established by the federal government. The base lines running north and south are known as Principles Meridians, while the east and west lines are called simply "Base Lines". The township numbers east or west of the Principle Meridians are designated as ranges whereas the numbers north and south of the Base Line are tiers. Thus the description of a township, for example "Township 14 North, Range 5 West" would mean that the township is situated 14 tiers north of the Base Line for the Principal Meridian and 5 ranges west of that meridian. Guide meridians, at intervals of 24 miles east and or west of the Principles Meridian, are extended north and or south from the Base Ling; Standard Parallels at 24 mile intervals north and or south of the Base Line, are extended east and or west from the Principal Meridian.
The township is 6 miles square. It is divided into 36 square-mile sections of 640 acres each which may be divided and subdivided as desired. The diagrams herewith show the system of numbering the sections and the usual method of subdividing them.
For example: A piece of land is described as the NE 1/4 of the SW 1/4 of Section 10, T 4-N, R 5-E, 3rd. Prin. Mer. The translation would be " The Northeast quarter of the Southwest quarter of Section 10 in Township 4 North and Range 5 West of the 3rd. Principal Meridian." By referring to the map the approximate location of this 40 acre tract can easily be determined.
Irregular tracts of land are, of course, also described by metes and bounds within the rectangular survey system. They are however, tied into the monuments established under the rectangular system.
For detailed information on the public land survey system in the United States see the "Manual of Instruction for the Survey of the Public Lands of the United States" issued by the Bureau of Land Management of the Department of the Interior.

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Green Twp., Randolph County Indiana
Post Offices: Fairview, Emmetsville, Brinkley

Monroe Twp., Randolph County Indiana
PostOffices: Bragg, Parker Morristown, Parker City

Stoney Creek Twp., Randolph County Indiana
PostOffices: Winsor, Opal, Neff

Was Nettle Creek Twp., Is now the western part of Union Twp., Randolph County Indiana
PostOffices: Melacton, Goodview, Fallen Timber #2, Fallen Timber #1, Old Losantville, Modoc, Losantville, Chamness

Franklin Twp., Randolph County Indiana
PostOffices: Riidgeville, Horn, Sherman

Ward Twp., Randolph County Indiana
PostOffice: Mississinewa, Deerfield, Randolph #2, Clarke, Saratoga

White River Twp., Randolph County Indiana
PostOffice: Mull, Macksville, Winchester

Was West River Twp., Now it is the east part of Union Twp., Randolph County Indiana
PostOffices: Unionport, Cerro Gordo, Hunt's Cross Roads, Trenton, Swain's Hill, Smith's, Carlos City, Carlos

Wahington Twp., Randolph County Indiana
PostOffices: Rural, Snow Hill, Old Snow Hill, Lynn, Bloomingsport, Le Gro, Johnson, Old Lynn

Jackson Twp., Randolph County Indiana
PostOffice: New Pittsburg, Jordan, Rickert, Castle, New Middleton, Mars Hill, Mount Holly

Wayne Twp., Randolph County Indiana
PostOffice: Harrisville, Union City, Balaka, Randolph #1, Bartonia

Green Fork Twp., Randolph County Indiana
PostOffice: Spartansburg, Crete, Arba

Post Office Information is in the 1990 Randolph County Indiana History Book (available at the Randolph County History Museum)

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Randolph County Indiana Maps